Singapore is a small Asian country consisting of about 60 small islands in addition to the main island that occupies an area of 28.9 km2, which is located to the north of the peninsula of Malaysia and is separated between them by the Strait of Johor. The Malay Peninsula in its prosperity and development; It thus controls the Strait of Malacca, which connects between the South China Sea and the Indian Ocean, and the country has grown from a British colony to become a member of the Commonwealth, and the largest port in Southeast Asia, and it includes one of the busiest airports in the world.
The history of Singapore
The human influx began to Singapore between (1500-2500) BC, and over time, the spice trade flourished in the region. 1959 AD and Lee Kuan Yew took over the presidency of the government, who rose to the country, and in 1963 AD, Singapore united with Malaya and Malaysian Sarawak, but soon withdrew from this union in 1965, and was installed as an independent republic in the same year
Capital of Singapore
The capital of Singapore Singapore has divided administratively into a group of municipalities, including the country’s capital, the city of Singapore (in English: Singapore), which is the capital of Singapore, as it is located in the southern corner of Singapore Island, at the strait connecting the Indian Ocean and the China Sea. Southern, which shares its name with the state, as this capital is of great importance It includes one of the largest ports in the world, and the population of the capital of Singapore is approximately 3,547,809, and thus it ranks first in the list of Singapore’s largest cities by population.
The naming of Singapore
Singapore has been called by many names during its long history; It was called in the third century AD as “Bo Luo Chang”, Singapore was also known as “Tamasik”, and the country remained after Tamasik until it was called Singapore in the fourteenth century, and with the fall of the Republic under Japanese occupation between 1942-1945 AD, the name Sainonan Tu appeared. (English: Synonan-to), which is a Japanese name meaning the light of the south, and the Republic of Singapore today has many titles; Perhaps the most popular one is the nickname “Little Red Dot”, and Singapore is also known for its “Garden City”.
The current flag of the Republic of Singapore appeared for the first time officially on December 3, 1959 AD, consisting of two horizontal rectangles; The upper rectangle is red and the lower rectangle is white, and next to it there are five stars in white in the red rectangle. The crescent indicates that Singapore is a new country, while the stars indicate the five values: Democracy, equality, justice, peace, and progress. Its white colour indicates the purity of people’s hearts, and the red colour in the state’s flag is a sign of global brotherhood.
Geography of Singapore
The Republic of Singapore is located in the southeast corner of the Asian continent, specifically in the area between the states of Malaysia and Indonesia, and it is an island country surrounded by water from all directions and does not share its borders with any other country. 0 towards the north, longitude 103 ° 48 0 towards the east, and the country occupies with its borders a small geographical area of about 721.5 km2, and thus it ranks 190 in the list of world countries in terms of area, and the population density in Singapore is 7,778 people per km Thus, it is ranked second in the world in terms of population density. Singapore is a relatively small country; As it is smaller in area than many cities in the world, and therefore it does not contain major or major cities.
As for the climate, the equatorial climate is the prevailing climate in the State of Singapore. Where the hot, humid and rainy weather prevails during the year, and the land of Singapore is characterized by the diversity of its surface appearances, and lands with a height of fewer than 15 meters above sea level predominate over the general shape of the country, with the presence of high hills, such as Bukit Timah Hill (English: Bukit Timah Hill), And Mandai Hill.
Demographics of Singapore
Singapore is inhabited by about 5,817,394 people, according to the latest statistics issued by the United Nations in October 2019 AD, thus it ranks 114th in the list of countries in the world in terms of population, and the age group (50-54) years is the largest group among the country’s population. The largest ethnic group is Chinese with a rate of 74.3%, followed by the Malay community by 13.4%, then Indian with 9%, and 3.2 from other groups, and it is worth noting that the main urban areas in Singapore are concentrated along the southern coast of the island. Singapore has more than one official language, and people in Singapore use many languages. Such as English, Mandarin Chinese, Tamil, and Malay language, Immigration plays a critical role in the current population of Singapore, as the population growth in Singapore as a result of the number of immigrants entering the country more than the natural population growth, as the number of immigrants in Singapore in 2019 reached about 2.16 million immigrants out of a total population of about 5.8 million.
The system of government in Singapore
The constitution in Singapore stipulates that the head of government is himself the president of the country, and Yusuf bin Ishaq is the first to occupy this position. He was chosen in 1991 by Parliament, and in the same year the presidential election law was amended to make it in the hands of the citizens, and the presidential period was set to six years. Public service and the current president of Singapore is Mrs Halima Yaqoub, who was elected as the head of state in 2017.
The government of Singapore
The government in Singapore is divided into three authorities: The legislative authority represented by the president and parliament, the executive authority represented by the cabinet, and the judicial authority responsible for implementing the laws. Parliament members are chosen through general elections that take place once every 5 years, and the prime minister is headed by the head of the political party with the majority of votes, and he who chooses his ministers One of the members of the House of Representatives, as for choosing the Speaker of Parliament, it shall be one of the elected members.
The Singaporean economy is mainly based on the free market principle; It ranks second among the free-market economies in the world, with a score of 89.4 according to the 2019 index, and the reason for this is the availability of an open commercial environment, the achievement of transparency of the law, the wisdom in setting monetary and financial policies, and the effective directions of the country’s government to develop the country’s economy By encouraging investment, providing financial incentives, moving towards diversifying the economy, and rejecting all aspects of corruption, and the Singapore economy depends on exports, financial services, the tourism sector, shipping, and some major industries such as the manufacture of electronic devices, machinery, all of this and others contributed to the existence of Strong economy, Unemployment rates in Singapore have become among the lowest in the world, and the Singaporean economy has become one of the most stable economies. By the existence of a surplus in the state treasury
Singapore’s currency The Singapore dollar (in English: Singapore dollar) is the official currency in circulation in the State of Singapore, as one Singapore dollar consists of a hundred cents, and its paper denominations are (2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 1,000, 10,000), and symbolizes it Acronym for “SGD”, and this abbreviation is used in the foreign exchange market; It is the largest financial market in the world with an average daily turnover of 5 trillion US dollars, and the Singapore currency ranks thirteenth in the list of the most traded currencies in the exchange market.
Singapore ranks fourth in the list of the largest foreign exchange trading centres, after London, New York and Tokyo, and it has about 119 billion US dollars, equivalent to 197 billion Singapore dollars in foreign exchange reserves. The country’s trade sector has significantly developed; Singapore became an exporting country after it was a transit station for the exports and imports of neighbouring countries. The most important exports during the 1960s were rubber, pepper, coffee, and palm oil. Over time, exports developed to include the following products: data processing equipment, microelectronic circuits, and refined petroleum products. , Telecommunications equipment, organic chemicals, and circuit breakers
Industry in Singapore
Singapore is characterized by a strong industrial sector, especially in the field of manufacturing industries, and the most important industrial activities are the manufacture of electronics, chemicals, biomedical sciences, logistics, transportation engineering, in addition to the financial services industry represented by more than 200 banks and financial centres, which have a major role in transferring knowledge. And technology, and skills among the global, regional, and local markets, and other industries that Singapore has adopted include the medical technology industry, space engineering, renewable energy, and health centres.
Agriculture in Singapore
The domestic agricultural production in Singapore is relatively small, as it imports most of its food needs from abroad. Therefore, the competent authorities seek to achieve a guarantee of the continuous external supply of food and agricultural products, by setting laws and regulations and exempting imported agricultural products from customs, and it is worth noting that the country’s total imports of agricultural products amounted to 9.9 billion dollars in 2018.
Education in Singapore
Singapore has a strong and developed education sector. It includes the best public schools in the world, according to a study conducted by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, and Singapore includes the two largest universities in Asia; Nanyang Technological University, the National University of Singapore, and the competent authorities are constantly striving to pay attention to higher education, developing skills, and developing human resources, in addition to providing scholarships for outstanding students in overseas universities in various countries such as America, the United Kingdom, and Australia.
Technological development in Singapore
The technology sector in Singapore is characterized by being developed, thanks to the country’s position among the largest Asian markets, and the Singaporean government’s measures to reduce taxes, achieve advanced infrastructure, encourage investment in the technology sector, and allocate a measure of GDP to support scientific and technological research. The technology sector in Singapore today is one of the pillars of the country’s economy, and therefore it seeks to continuously create innovative technologies; To achieve economic competitiveness, this is done through the creation of innovation, and the orientation towards entrepreneurship and research.
Causes of the Singapore Revival
Singapore’s strategic geographic location played an important role in its renaissance, and after its independence, former Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew managed to make the country’s politics more stable. By establishing a clear, effective and safe legal system, which led to a state of political stability in Singapore, which contributed to raising the level of attracting investments; Thus, the state’s renaissance and development. This is in addition to the strong commercial sector that Singapore enjoys, due to the country’s endeavour to follow many effective policies and procedures to advance this sector, including the establishment of advanced infrastructure. Which in turn contributed to the renaissance of the country.
Culture and art in Singapore
Singapore has the distinction of being one of the most culturally diverse countries in the world; It includes a rich mix of Asian cultures by its location in Southeast Asia, in addition to the presence of some Western cultures that have emerged in recent times due to globalization. Contact with society, the solid establishment of national identity, and cultural continuity. The country witnesses about 1,400 cultural activities and shows every year, including the Singapore Chinese Orchestra, dance performances, traditional music, and contemporary art, in addition to the presence of many advanced cultural centres, Such as the National Library of Singapore, which includes large numbers of official and government books and publications, the National University of Singapore Library, Singapore Polytechnic, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, the National Museum, Art Gallery, Singapore Museum of New Art, Asian Civilizations Museum, and Lee Kong Qian Museum
Sports in Singapore
Sport first appeared in Singapore during the nineteenth century, and the reason for this was attributed to the English colonialists; They practised sport as a means of entertainment, and thus the infrastructure of sports clubs such as the Singapore Recreational Club, the Singapore Swimming Club, and the Cricket Club appeared, and then other clubs appeared in conjunction with the influx of immigrants, including the Chinese Swimming Club, the Indian League, and the Malay Football Club.
The most famous food in Singapore
Singaporean cuisine includes many foods, the most important of which are mentioned below:
Satay: This dish consists of pieces of meat placed on wooden sticks and dipped in a spiced peanut sauce.
Nasi Lemak: This dish consists of coconut rice, fried fish, eggs, fresh cucumber slices and chilli sauce, and can be eaten at any time during the day.
Kaya Toast: served as a breakfast meal and consisted of toast, coconut, jam and eggs.
Nonya Kueh: A delicious sweet snack sold in stores and restaurants
Laksa: It is a popular dish consisting of vermicelli, rice, snails, prawns, fish, dried shrimp, and coconut broth.
Tourism in Singapore
Singapore’s tourism sector is a major component of the country’s economy. As it is visited by millions of visitors and tourists from different parts of the world, which makes it one of the most prominent tourist destinations in the world.
The Museum of Art and Science: (English: ArtScience Museum), this museum is considered a landmark dedicated to educational activities, and it is located within the facilities of the Marina Bay Sands Resort and includes many wonderful digital installations
. Gardens by the Bay: Gardens by the Bay is a unique destination for lovers of gardens and green areas. It is characterized by its natural landscapes, which are represented by vertical gardens reaching 16 floors.
Singapore Zoo: (in English: Singapore Zoo), this park represents a distinctive destination for animal lovers. It includes about 300 different animal species, including endangered animals.
Pulau Ubin Island: This park represents a distinctive destination for lovers of islands and beaches, and visitors can do many activities, such as cycling, visiting the traditional village,
Singapore. Little India region:
It is considered a distinct heritage area, and this area includes many shops and colourful buildings.